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The Use of Mechanical Anchors in Restoration and Strengthening Works

Along with the commonly used jacketing method in restoration and strengthening applications, FRP and FRCM methods are the other globally accepted methods. FRP system is a traditional strengthening method, the abbreviation FRP comes from the initials of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer and is also known as CFRP (Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer). The system consists of bonding a technical fabric or plate made of carbon fiber to the reinforced concrete structural element from the outside using epoxy. Another widely used system in addition to the traditional FRP method is the FRCM system. FRCM strengthening system’s name comes from the initials of Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix, which is a modern and up-to-date method of repair and strengthening. In its simplest form, the strengthening system consists of textile reinforcement (also called strengthening textile or technical textile) and a cement or lime-based matrix. In strengthening systems with carbon fiber polymer and epoxy or textile reinforced mortar, performance increases are observed where mechanical anchors are used along with the system. The importance of using anchors in restoration and strengthening applications has been demonstrated by many scientific studies worldwide.

It has been shown that the use of mechanical anchors in strengthening applications with the traditional FRP method created by using carbon fabric or carbon plate with epoxy increases the bearing capacity of structural elements against shear and flexural forces, as well as ductility. Similarly, it has been demonstrated with the experimental results that the use of anchors in strengthening with the textile reinforced matrix, FRCM composites, increases the shear and flexural capacity of the load-bearing structural element as well as its ductility. When the structural element was subjected to compressive pressure force after strengthening and the results were assessed, the differences were determined between the damage in the structural element reinforced on both sides and without anchoring, and the damage in the one with two-sided reinforcement and mechanical anchoring.

The use of mechanical anchors increases the bond performance of the structural element with the FRP layer or FRCM composite, and prevents the separation of the column, beam, shear wall or load-bearing masonry wall and the reinforcement layer. In this way, in FRP or FRCM strengthening applications, mechanical anchoring ensures that the load-bearing structural element to be reinforced and the carbon fiber fabric, carbon fiber plate or textile reinforced matrix work together under load and prevents the separation of the reinforcement layer from the surface. In the ACI 549 (Guide to Design and Construction of Externally Bonded Fabric-Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) and Steel-Reinforced Grout (SRG) Systems for Repair and Strengthening Masonry/Concrete Structures) standard, the bond between the reinforcement layer and the reinforced element can be broken in various situations, before the reinforcement layer starts to work or collapses, therefore the reinforcement system cannot work as intended and designed. It has been stated that the use of anchors has a positive effect on stress transfer by changing the collapse method. The use of mechanical anchors in strengthening has been shown in studies that the strengthened structural element changes its crack pattern and the amount of deformation under load.

In Turkish Building Earthquake Code, it is stated in section 15C.3.1 that the use of anchors in strengthening with fabric reinforced polymers is necessary for load transfer to the structural frame, and it is stated that the anchor rod, such as ticm Connector V1, and fabric reinforced polymer should be used together.

In the light of national or international standards regarding strengthening applications and studies carried out in various parts of the world, the utmost care should be paid to the use of mechanical anchors in FRP or FRCM strengthening applications, the correct anchoring should be applied to reinforced concrete or masonry structure element in order not to disturb the continuity of the strengthening layer during the application and to enable the uniform load transfer.

ticm has a variety of mechanical anchors specially developed for use in restoration and strengthening applications. These are L Anchor, Connector V1, Connector V2, Helink, LD Plate and Geolink. Depending on the application and design, the appropriate glass, carbon, basalt or stainless steel material can be used. These top-quality anchors, which can be in different diameters and sizes, are produced in accordance with national or international standards. You may find more detailed information on our related product pages and in the "Repair and Strengthening Solutions" section of our website.